TERRORIST ATTACKS IN THE U.S.
1920, Sept. 16, New York City: TNT bomb planted in unattended horse-drawn wagon exploded on Wall Street opposite House of Morgan, killing 35 persons and injuring hundreds more. Bolshevist or anarchist terrorists believed responsible, but crime never solved.
1975, Jan. 24, New York City: bomb set off in historical Fraunces Tavern killed four and injured more than 50 persons. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility and police tied 13 other bombings to it.
1993, Feb. 26, New York City: bomb exploded in basement garage of World Trade Center; killed six and injured at least 1,040 others. Six Middle Eastern men were later convicted in this act of vengeance for the Palestinian people. They claimed to be retaliating against U.S. support for the Israeli government.
1995, April 19, Oklahoma City: car bomb exploded outside federal office building, collapsing wall and floors. 168 persons were killed, including 19 children and one person who died in rescue effort. Over 220 buildings sustained damage. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols later convicted in the antigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco, Tex., exactly two years earlier.
2001, Sept. 11, New York City and Arlington, Va.: American Airlines Boeing 767 and United Airlines Boeing 767, both en route from Boston to Los Angeles, were hijacked and flown only minutes apart into the north and south towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Shortly afterwards, American Airlines Boeing 757, en route from Washington, DC, to Los Angeles, crashed into the Pentagon. A fourth hijacked plane, operated by United and headed from Newark to San Francisco, crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pa. Both World Trade Center towers collapsed, and a section of the Pentagon was destroyed. All 266 passengers and crew aboard the aircraft were killed; final death toll and persons responsible unknown at time the almanac went to press, although total deaths were estimated to be in the thousands.
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001: TIMELINE OF TERRORISM – AFTERMATH
All times Eastern Daylight Time, by David Johnson
American Airlines Flight 11, Boston to Los Angeles with 92 people onboard, crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.
United Airlines Flight 175, Boston to Los Angeles with 65 people onboard, flies into the south tower of the World Trade Center.
Speaking from Florida, President George Bush pledges the United States will hunt down the guilty parties.
American Flight 77, en route from Dulles Airport, Washington DC, to Los Angeles with 64 people onboard, crashes into the Pentagon.
The U.S. Capitol and the West Wing of the White House are evacuated.
The Federal Aviation Administration bans all aircraft takeoffs in the United States.
South tower of the World Trade Center collapses.
Emergency operator in Pennsylvania receives a call from a passenger on United Flight 93, Newark to San Francisco with 45 people onboard, stating the plane was being hijacked.
United Flight 93 crashes about 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh.
North tower of the World Trade Center collapses.
New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani orders lower Manhattan evacuated.
With U.S. military on nuclear alert, Bush taken to Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana.
Bush boards Air Force One for Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska, headquarters of the U.S. Strategic Air Command.
U.S. military deploys missile destroyers and other equipment in New York and Washington.
Another World Trade Center building collapses.
President Bush arrives in Washington.
The president addresses the nation, vowing to punish “evil acts.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12th
- Officials estimate 200 dead, including hijacking victims, at the Pentagon.
- Osama bin Laden denies involvement.
- The Taliban, of Afghanistan, denies foreknowledge of attacks.
- 4,000 FBI and CIA agents involved in the investigation.
- Families report receiving calls from victims of hijackings.
- Major league baseball games, NFL games, Emmys, and other major events postponed.
- For the first time NATO invokes Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty, which states that an armed attack on one member nation “shall be considered an attack against them all”.
- Four suspects in Boston and Rhode Island detained and released.
- Investigations lead police to flight-training schools in Florida.
- List of victims from hijacked planes released.
- Relatives, friends search for survivors in area hospitals.
- Almost 100 confirmed dead in New York.
- Americans line up at blood donation centers.
- Rental car found at Boston's Logan airport contains Arabic-language flight manuals.
- Flags fly at half-staff around the world. U.S. financial markets closed.
- U.S. airports close.
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 13th
- Ten suspects detained at New York airports; some said to be carrying fake credentials and knives.
- Family and friends of WTC victims fill out missing person reports at the Lexington Street Armory.
- Flight data and voice recorders found at the Pennsylvania crash site.
- Secretary of State Colin Powell names Osama bin Laden as main suspect.
- German police detain suspect in Hamburg.
- U.S. urges on Pakistan to close its borders with Afghanistan.
- President Bush visits survivors of Pentagon attack.
- Mayor Giuliani estimates over 4,000 dead in New York.
- European Union declares Friday, September 14, a day of mourning.
- U.S. airports begin reopening; Boston's Logan and D.C.'s Reagan airports remain closed.
- U.S. bond markets open.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14th
- SEC relaxes rules on company buybacks.
- Afghan refugees flee to Iranian and Pakistani borders.
- Suspects flown from Texas and Minnesota to New York for questioning.
- President Bush declares a national emergency.
- The Senate adopts a resolution authorizing the use of U.S. armed forces against those responsible for the attacks.
- President Bush visits World Trade Center site.
- Federal officials release names of the 19 hijackers.
- President Bush declares a “national day of prayer and remembrance.” Many Americans attend religious services.
- Congress unanimously approves $40 billion for emergency aid.
- Suspects detained at New York airports cleared and released.
- President Bush activates 50,000 National Guard and Reserve members to help with recovery and security.
- Flight data and voice recorders found at the Pentagon crash site.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 15th
- President Bush meets with senior advisors at Camp David.
- DNA testing will be used to identify remains; families and loved ones of missing asked to bring in hairbrushes, razors, and other items for DNA analysis.
- Continental Airlines announces 12,000 layoffs; Continental, American, United, Northwest to cut schedules.
- Funeral services held for New York City's Fire Department Chief Peter Ganci, First Deputy Fire Commissioner William Feehan, and department chaplain Father Mychal Judge.
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 16th
- Investigators learn three hijackers may have attended the same German university, the Technical University of Hamburg- Harburg.
- Attorney General John Ashcroft asks Congress to write tougher anti-terrorist laws and to expand the powers of law enforcement to use wire-tapping.
- 190 confirmed dead at World Trade Center.
- Memorial service takes place at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City.
- Vice President Cheney tells press President Bush authorized F-16 fighters to shoot down hijacked planes heading toward Washington, D.C.
- Mayor Giuliani now says over 4,900 reported missing.
- Mayor Giuliani dispels rumors of tapping heard in the WTC wreckage.
- Transportation Secretary Norman Minetta announces he appointed two task forces to report on improving air security.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 17th
- Attorney General Ashcroft says federal marshals will be flying on many commercial flights.
- Indonesian President Megawati Sukarnoputri leaves for Washington, the first world leader to visit after the attacks.
- The IMF and World Bank cancel their annual meetings, which were to take place later this month in Washington, D.C.
- Pakistani envoys meet with Taliban leaders to urge the extradition of Osama bin Laden.
- Wall Street reopens after longest closing since 1933; Dow logs its greatest point loss ever.
- Federal Reserve lowers interest rates.
- Major league baseball pennant race resumes.
- Airlines losing millions; more lay-offs to come.
- President Bush says bin Laden is wanted “dead or alive.”
- Pakistan essentially closes its border with Afghanistan; an estimated 1 million Afghan refugees are confined to northern camps.