Military History for March

1st
1881. Articles of Confederation are ratified. Continental Army continues as national army of confederate states.

1887. Army establishes Hospital Corps.

1942. Navy Battle of Sunda Strait

1954. U.S. successfully explodes its hydrogen bomb in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.

1991. The U.S. Central Command reports that in the 43 days of the Desert Storm air war, coalition forces flew over 110,000 sorties, ending the period with an overall aircraft mission capable rate of 93.4%.

2nd
1807. Congress outlaws the importation of slaves into the United States.

1899. George Dewey becomes the only flag officer to ever hold the rank of Admiral of the Navy.

3rd
1855. Congress appropriates funds for 33 camels for an experimental Army Camel Corps for use in the southwest.

1855. Congress authorizes the first Army Cavalry units.

1869. Army forms two African American infantry regiments.

1915. Navy creates office of Chief of Naval Operations.

4th
1801. Marine Corps Band performs at presidential inauguration for the first time.

1907. Congress appropriates $30,000 for installing wireless telegraph on not more than 12 Revenue Cutters.

1925. Congress establishes Navy ROTC.

5th
1913. Army forms 1st Provisional Aero Squadron.

1918. Army Tank Service is formed.

1944. Army Engineers parachute in to assist British forces in Burma.

6th
1896. Congress authorizes Secretary of Treasury to detail cutters to enforce anchorage regulations St. Mary's River.

1932. Marine Corps Band leader John Philip Sousa dies at age 79 in Reading, PA.

7th
1951. The 1st, 7th, and 11th Marine Regiments commence operations against enemy at Hongchon, Korea.

1987. “Tanker War begins in Persian Gulf.

8th
1854. Commodore Matthew Perry lands at Yokohama, Japan.

1965. Marines land at Red Beach, Da Nang, Vietnam.

9th
1847. MajGen Winfield Scott conducts Army's first amphibious landing, together with Navy and Marine forces and lays siege to Vera Cruz, during the Mexican War.

1862. Monitor vs. Virginia clash in first naval battle between ironclad warships.

1916. BGen John Pershing's Expedition Brigades pursue Pancho Villa across the U.S. border into Mexico. Lt George S. Patton serves as an aide.

1945. More than 300 B-29s from the Marianas attack Tokyo in a low-altitude, incendiary night raid, destroying about one fourth of the city.

10th
1783. Navy, with Marines in fighting tops of the USS alliance, defeat HMS Sibyll in last naval battle of the American Revolution.

1983. The Coast Guard retires the last operational HU-16E Albatross, ending the era of seaplanes for the service.

11th
1853. Marines from the USS Cyane land at San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.

1864. Army establishes Ambulance Corps.

1942. Navy PT Boats deliver General Douglas MacArthur and others from Corregidor to Mindanao, Philippines, for flight to Australia.

12th
1824. Marines of the Boston Barracks quell Massachusetts State Prison riot.

1863. Navy begins Red River expedition.

1965. The beginning of the Navy's Operation Market Time to interdict resupply of Communist forces in South Vietnam by river and coastal routes. The initiation of this campaign led to the Navy's request for USCG vessels and crews to participate in riverine and coastal patrols during the Vietnam War.

13th
1900. Navy establishes General Board.

1945. Marines attack through Cushman's Pocket, Iwo Jima, the last strongpoint of Japanese resistance on the island.

14th
1905. The first Marine military attaché is appointed to Legation at Peking, China.

15th
1781. American regular and militia units battle British forces at Guilford Courthouse, NC.

1944. Marine medium bombers attack Japanese positions at Rabaul.

1947. Ens. John W. Lee is first African American to receive a Regular Navy commission.

1962.* Official military start of Vietnam War. There will be 17 campaigns lasting until *1973.

16th
1802. Congress establishes the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY.

1922. Marines guard U.S. Mail during a national crime wave.

1973. Nine-year Viet Cong POW, Army Captain Floyd Thompson is released. This internment period set the record for American POWs.

17th
St. Patrick's Day.

1917. Congress authorizes Navy to enlist women (Yeomanettes) for clerical work.

1918. 5th Regiment becomes first Marine unit to move into WWI front line trenches.

1942. Navy establishes Naval Forces, Europe command.

18th
1941. USCGC Cayuga transports South Greenland Survey Expedition to locate airfields, seaplane bases, radio and meteorological stations, and aids to navigation in Greenland.

1945. Marine Air Group 14 flies air support for U.S. Army landings at Panay, Philippines.

19th
1778. Baron von Steuben conducts first formal drill training of the Continental Army, Valley Forge, PA..

1918. Ens. Stephen Potter is first Navy pilot to down an enemy plane.

1928. The first use of close air support occurs when Marine planes bomb a bandit group at Nueva Segovia, Nicaragua.

20th
1922. Navy commissions first aircraft carrier, Langley.

1943. Marine “Avenger squadron conducts first aerial mine laying mission.

21st
1791. Hopley Yeaton of New Hampshire is commissioned as “Master of a Cutter in the Service of the United States for the Protection of the Revenue. This first commission of a seagoing officer of the United States was signed by George Washington and attested to by Thomas Jefferson.

1945. Japanese first use piloted rocket bombs (Bakas) against Navy ships.

22nd
1919. The Acting Secretary of the Treasury advised that light keepers and the officers and crews of vessels were not entitled to the benefits of the Public Health Service free of charge after retirement.

1941. Emergency evacuation of Antarctic Service East Base.

23rd
1882. Navy establishes Office of Naval Intelligence.

1815. Marines assist the USS Hornet's capture of HMS Penguin off Tristan de Cunha.

1847. Mexico surrenders Vera Cruz to American forces.

1942. Army implements orders to gather and confine Japanese Americans to relocation camps in western U.S.

24th
1944. 22nd Marine Regiment captures Ebon and Namu Atolls in the Marshall Islands.

1989. The tanker Exxon Valdez grounded on a reef in Prince William Sound, AK, spilling 10.1 million gallons of crude oil. This was the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Coast Guard units responded and prevented the entire cargo from spilling, cleaned up the oil that did spill, and conducted an investigation into the causes of the accident. The spill provides the impetus for the passage of the Oil Protection Act in 1990.

25th
1804. Secretary of the Navy approves the first formal uniform of the Marine Corps.

1863. Marines with Farragut's squadron engage Confederates at the Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

1915. Submarine F-4 accidentally sinks off Honolulu.

1944. 15th Air Force crews close the Brenner Pass between Italy and Austria with the first operational use of the VB-I Azon (Azimuth Only) radio-controlled bomb.

26th
1943. Battle of the Komandorski Islands.

1945. U.S. forces land at Geruma Shima, Hokaji Shima, and Takashiki in the Ryukyu Islands.

1946. Coast Guard resumes International Ice Patrol after being suspended during World War II.

27th
1943. CG-85006 (ex-Catamount) exploded off Ambrose Light.

1953. The 1st Marine Division defeats Communist Chinese in the Battle for “Vegas Hill, Korea.

28th
1870. Marines seize and destroy illicit distilleries in “Irishtown, Brooklyn, NY.

1976. First successful launch of a Tomahawk cruise missile.

29th
1853. Army Corps of Engineers begins construction of U.S. Capitol's north and south wings.

1917. Marines garrison St. Croix to deny harbor to German submarines during WWI.

30th
1854. Apaches ambush 1st Dragoons near Taos, NM. Army begins year long campaign against the Apaches.

1867. Army troops arrive Sitka to establish U.S. control over newly purchased Alaskan Territory.

31st
1801. President Thomas Jefferson and Marine Commandant W.W. Burrows select the Washington D.C. location at 8th and I Street as the site for the Marine Barracks.

1899. Army troops capture Philippine Republic Capitol Malolos.

1948. Operation Vittles (Berlin Airlift) begins.